control |kənˈtrōl| noun 1 the power to influence or direct people’s behavior or the course of events : the whole operation is under the control of a production manager | the situation was slipping out of her control. • the ability to manage a machine or other moving object : he lost control of his car | improve your ball control. • the restriction of an activity, tendency, or phenomenon : pest control. • the power to restrain something, esp. one’s own emotions or actions : give children time to get control of their emotions. • (often controls) a means of limiting or regulating something : growing controls on local spending. • a switch or other device by which a machine is regulated : the volume control. • the place where a particular item is verified : passport control. • the base from which a system or activity is directed : communications could be established with central control | mission control. • Bridge a high card that will prevent opponents from establishing a particular suit. • Computing short for control key . 2 Statistics a group or individual used as a standard of comparison for checking the results of a survey or experiment : they saw no difference between the cancer patients and the controls. 3 a member of an intelligence organization who personally directs the activities of a spy. verb ( -trolled , -trolling ) 1 [ trans. ] determine the behavior or supervise the running of : he was appointed to control the company’s marketing strategy. • maintain influence or authority over : you shouldn’t have dogs if you can’t control them. • limit the level, intensity, or numbers of : he had to control his temper. • ( control oneself) remain calm and reasonable despite provocation : he made an effort to control himself. • regulate (a mechanical or scientific process) : the airflow is controlled by a fan. • [as adj. ] ( controlled) (of a drug) restricted by law with respect to use and possession : a sentence for possessing controlled substances. 2 Statistics [ intrans. ] ( control for) take into account (an extraneous factor that might affect results) when performing an experiment : no attempt was made to control for variations | [as adj. ] ( controlled) a controlled trial. • check; verify. PHRASES in control able to direct a situation, person, or activity : I felt calm and in control. out of control no longer possible to manage : fires burning out of control. under control (of a danger or emergency) being dealt with successfully and competently : it took two hours to bring the blaze under control. DERIVATIVES controllability |kənˌtrōləˈbilitē| noun controllable adjective controllably |-əblē| adverb ORIGIN late Middle English (as a verb in the sense [check or verify accounts,] esp. by referring to a duplicate register): from Anglo-Norman French contreroller ‘keep a copy of a roll of accounts,’ from medieval Latin contrarotulare, from contrarotulus ‘copy of a roll,’ from contra- ‘against’ + rotulus ‘a roll.’ The noun is perhaps via French contrôle.
pressure |ˈpre sh ər|
1 the continuous physical force exerted on or against an object by something in contact with it : the slight extra pressure he applied to her hand.
• the force exerted per unit area : gas can be fed to the turbines at a pressure of around 250 psi.
2 the use of persuasion, influence, or intimidation to make someone do something : the proposals put pressure on Britain to drop its demand | the many pressures on girls to worry about their looks.
• the influence or effect of someone or something : oil prices came under some downward pressure.
• the feeling of stressful urgency caused by the necessity of doing or achieving something, esp. with limited time : you need to be able to work under pressure and not get flustered | some offenders might find prison a refuge against the pressures of the outside world.
verb [ trans. ]
attempt to persuade or coerce (someone) into doing something : it might now be possible to pressure him into resigning | [ trans. ] she pressured her son to accept a job offer from the bank.
ORIGIN late Middle English : from Old French, from Latin pressura, from press- ‘pressed,’ from the verb premere (see press 1 ).
deep sorrow, esp. that caused by someone’s death: she was overcome with grief.
• informal trouble or annoyance: they won’t give you any grief in the next few days.
come to grief have an accident; meet with disaster: many a ship has come to grief along this shore.
good grief! an exclamation of irritation, frustration, or surprise.
ORIGIN Middle English: from Old French grief, from grever ‘to burden’ (see grieve).